Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.
We explore archaeal distributions in sedimentary subseafloor habitats of Guaymas Basin and the adjacent Sonora Margin, located in the Gulf of California, México. Sampling locations include (1) control sediments without hydrothermal or seep influence, (2) Sonora Margin sediments underlying oxygen minimum zone water, (3) compacted, highly reduced sediments from a pressure ridge with numerous seeps at the base of the Sonora Margin, and (4) sediments impacted by hydrothermal circulation at the off-axis Ringvent site. Generally, archaeal communities largely comprise Bathyarchaeal lineages, members of the Hadesarchaea, MBG-D, TMEG, and ANME-1 groups. Variations in archaeal community composition reflect locally specific environmental challenges. Background sediments are divided into surface and subsurface niches. Overall, the environmental setting and history of a particular site, not isolated biogeochemical properties out of context, control the subseafloor archaeal communities in Guaymas Basin and Sonora Margin sediments.