Recent advances in nucleic acid extraction and sequencing have changed and expanded our understanding of the diversity of life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface. This chapter highlights recent developments in sequencing genetic material from the deep biosphere (spurred in part by the Census of Deep Life) and new bioinformatics approaches to present a synthesis of our current understanding of the biogeography of life in the deep biosphere. Building from this data framework, this chapter also explores emerging trends in understanding the ecology and evolution of subsurface life.