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Sustainability and dynamics of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation
Dustin M. Winslow* and Andrew T. Fisher*
*C-DEBI Contribution 264
[see also the UCSC press release]
Most seafloor hydrothermal circulation occurs far from the magmatic influence of mid-ocean ridges, driving large flows of water, heat and solutes through volcanic rock outcrops on ridge flanks. Here we create three-dimensional simulations of ridge–flank hydrothermal circulation, flowing between and through seamounts, to determine what controls hydrogeological sustainability, flow rate and preferred flow direction in these systems. We find that sustaining flow between outcrops that penetrate less-permeable sediment depends on a contrast in transmittance (the product of outcrop permeability and the area of outcrop exposure) between recharging and discharging sites, with discharge favoured through less-transmissive outcrops. Many simulations include local discharge through outcrops at the recharge end of an outcrop-to-outcrop system. Both of these characteristics are observed in the field. In addition, smaller discharging outcrops sustain higher flow rates than larger outcrops, which may help to explain how so much lithospheric heat is extracted globally by this process.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
The proteomic profile of an obligate iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph reveals new insight into microbial iron oxidation
Roman A. Barco*, David Emerson*, Jason B. Sylvan*, Beth N. Orcutt*, Myrna E. Jacobson Meyers, Gustavo A. Ramírez*, John D. Zhong and Katrina J. Edwards*
*C-DEBI Contribution 227
Microaerophilic, neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) grow via the oxidation of reduced Fe(II) at or near neutral pH, in the presence of oxygen, making them relevant in numerous environments with elevated Fe(II) concentrations. However, the biochemical mechanisms for Fe(II) oxidation by these neutrophilic FeOB are unknown, and genetic markers for this process are unavailable. In the ocean, microaerophilic microorganisms in the genus Mariprofundus of the class Zetaproteobacteria are the only known organisms to chemolithoautotrophically oxidize Fe and concurrently biomineralize it in the form of twisted stalks of iron oxyhydroxides. The aim of this study was to identify highly expressed proteins associated with the electron transport chain of microaerophilic, neutrophilic FeOB. To this end, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 was cultivated, its proteins were extracted and assayed for redox-activity and analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for identification of peptides. The results indicate that a cytochrome c4, cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase subunits and an outer membrane cytochrome c were among the most highly expressed proteins and suggest involvement in the process of aerobic, neutrophilic bacterial Fe oxidation. Proteins associated with an Alternative-Complex III, phosphate transport, carbon fixation and biofilm formation were abundant, consistent with the lifestyle of Mariprofundus.
Meetings, Workshops and Activities
Call for Abstracts: AGU 2015 Fall Meeting
Remember to submit your AGU abstracts by August 5, 2015. Deep biosphere-related sessions include…
- B027. Connecting single-cell processes to global biogeochemical cycles: a multidisciplinary challenge
Anne E Dekas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Peter R Girguis, Harvard University; Wiebke Ziebis, University of Southern California
- B051. Microbial Growth on Iron: You can’t spell life without Fe
Heather Fullerton, Western Washington University; Jarrod J Scott, Bigelow Lab for Ocean Sciences
- B088. Uncultured microorganisms and their geochemical roles in deep-sea environments
Stephanie A Carr, Colorado School of Mines; Jessica Labonté, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, FengPing Wang, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Mohamed Jebbar, UNIVERSITÉ DE BRETAGNE OCCIDENTALE
- OS012. Follow the fluids: Integrating multi-disciplinary observations of deep-sea hydrothermal systems
Thibaut Barreyre, WHOI; Jean-Arthur L Olive, Lamont -Doherty Earth Observatory; Jill M McDermott, University of Toronto; Maria G Pachiadaki, Bigelow Lab for Ocean Sciences
- OS014. Interplay between tectonics, oceanography, hydro-thermal circulation and microbial processes in the Gulf of California
Ivano W Aiello, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories; Ana Christina Ravelo, University of California Santa Cruz; Carlos A Mortera-Gutierrez, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
- ED008. Climate Literacy in K-12 Classrooms: Challenges, Solutions, and Change
Patricia Harcourt, University of Maryland Center (UMCES) for Environmental Science; Suseela Remata Reddy, Jackson State University, Sciences and Geoscience; David Finnigan, Climate Change is Elementary
- PP017. Geochemistry and Microbiology of Oxic and Suboxic Deep Sea Pelagic Sediments
Emily Estes, WHOI; Chloe H Anderson and Ann G Dunlea, Boston University; Claire Cecelia McKinley,Texas A&M University
See also the AGU 2015 Sessions of Interest to the DCO Community, and please contact me (email@example.com) if you’d like to advertise additional sessions via the C-DEBI mailing list and website.
NSF: Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S-STEM)
A well-educated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is essential to maintain the competitiveness of the U.S. in the global economy. Since its establishment, the S-STEM program’s scholarships combined with its curricular and co-curricular activities (e.g., curriculum, professional, and workforce development activities) have been found to positively affect retention, success, and graduation in STEM of academically talented students with demonstrated financial need. To enhance this success and to continue to address the critical need for a quality STEM workforce, the program will support up to $650,000 for Strand 1 – Institutional Capacity Building projects; and up to $1.0 million for Strand 2 – Design and Development Type 1 Single Institution projects. Of the total amount requested, at least 60% of the funds must support scholarships to low-income academically talented students with demonstrated financial need. Funds must be requested for high quality extant curriculum development and professional and workforce development activities that include the implementation and investigation of project activities and conducting project evaluation. The program also will support Strand 2 – Design and Development Type 2 multi-institutional collaborative efforts up to $5 million to fund scholarships and the implementation and testing of a common set of curricular and co-curricular activities across institutions. The level of funding requested must be based on the focus, scope, and size of the effort. For these types of projects, at least 60% of the funds must support scholarships. Full proposal deadline: September 22, 2015.
NSF: Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER)
See also the FAQ. Full proposal deadlines: July 21-23, 2015.
Simons Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: 2016 Faculty Scholars Competition
Application deadline: July 28, 2015.
National Academies: Research Associateships for Graduate, Postdoctoral and Senior Researchers
There are four annual review cycles and the next closes August 01, 2015.
IODP: Apply to Sail on Expedition 363 Western Pacific Warm Pool and Expedition 366 Mariana Convergent Margin
The deadline to apply is August 15, 2015.
NSF: Earth Sciences Postdoctoral Fellowships (EAR-PF)
Full proposal deadline: January 12, 2016
NSF: Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry Program Solicitation
Proposals accepted anytime.
IODP-USSSP: Proposals for Pre-Drilling Activities and Workshops
The U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP) accepts proposals on a rolling basis for pre-drilling activities and semi-annually for workshops, related to the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP).
USC Graduate Mike Lee on Talk Nerdy Podcast
Cara sits down with USC graduate student Michael Lee to talk about all things astrobiology. What is it? What can it tell us about alien life? And how does studying our own ocean floor help us understand what might be lurking on Jupiter’s moon Europa? Follow Michael: @astrobiomike.
IODP-USSP: Nominate an Ocean Discovery Lecturer
The U.S. Science Support Program is seeking dynamic speakers to convey the excitement of the International Ocean Discovery Program to geoscience communities across the United States. Since 1991, more than 750 presentations were made through the Distinguished Lecturer Series program to audiences at U.S. colleges, universities, and organizations. USSSP is continuing this program as the Ocean Discovery Lecturer Series and your help is needed to identify scientists interested in participating as lecturers during the 2016-2017 academic year. Lectures focus on the discoveries and results of ocean drilling programs and are primarily aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, museums, science departments, and the scientifically literate public. If you or someone you know is interested in becoming an Ocean Discovery Lecturer, email their name, institution, and potential lecture topic to Angela Slagle (firstname.lastname@example.org) by the nomination deadline of July 31, 2015.
The Rolex Scholarships
Currently there are three Rolex Scholarships: North America, Europe, and Australasia. Each Rolex Scholarship provides a hands-on introduction to underwater and other aquatic-related endeavors for a young person considering a career in an underwater-related discipline. One scholar is selected from each of the three regions and each scholar spends approximately one year working side by side with current leaders in underwater fields. Each scholar travels primarily within his or her region, but may have opportunities throughout the underwater world. The range of experiences may include active participation in field studies, underwater research, scientific expeditions, laboratory assignments, equipment testing and design, photographic instruction, and other specialized assignments. Application deadline: December 15, 2015.
The Data Incubator: Data Science Fellowship Opportunity
The next session will be from 09/08/15 to 10/16/15.
University of Leicester: Earth Science Research Associate (IODP & other projects)
The College of Science and Engineering, Department of Geology at the University of Leicester invites applications for a Research Associate (Earth Scientist) to join an established team engaged in the acquisition and analysis of petrophysical core and borehole measurement data for the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and other drilling/coring research projects. This is an exciting position that will provide the leading edge science needed for a future career in academia or the logging/petrophysical experience for a career in industry. The work is very much part of a team effort, though once an expedition is allocated, there is plenty of scope for independent activity. Applicants should ideally have a research background in at least one of the following areas: petrophysics, marine geology or geophysics. The position will include training as a Petrophysics Staff Scientist and will be responsible for the acquisition and scientific interpretation of core and borehole measurements, the production of scientific and technical reports, and the development of associated research programs. This research is a collaborative venture between the University of Leicester and a number of other universities and organizations in Europe, USA, Japan and other IODP member countries. This position will participate in IODP Mission Specific Platform expeditions, which include on average up to two months at sea and six weeks at the Bremen Core Repository (BCR, Germany) per year, with responsibility for the downhole logging and core physical properties programs for the expedition. The position has a fixed term contract from 1 September 2015 to 31 December 2016. Applications are due July 22, 2015. Click here and search on the reference number SEN00623 for more information and to apply.
Rice University: Wiess Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship in Earth and Planetary Science
The Department of Earth Science at Rice University is launching a Wiess Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship competition in the broad fields of Earth, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Interested candidates should have recently completed their PhD or are expected to complete their PhD by September 2016. The appointment of the fellow is expected to begin anytime between July and December 2016. The principal selection criteria for the fellow are scientific excellence and a clearly expressed research plan to address questions at the forefront of Earth science, broadly defined. Applicants are expected to propose their own research ideas, but are encouraged to consider the current spectrum of research activities in the department and to communicate with one or more members of the faculty (http://earthscience.rice.edu/). The research fellowship will be supported by the Department of Earth Science for two years pending satisfactory progress in their first year. The fellowship covers an annual stipend of $60,000 and includes an annual research allowance of $3,500. The application deadline is November 1, 2015.
IODP/Texas A&M: Assistant Research Scientist – Expedition Project Manager/Staff Scientist – Borehole Geophysics
We will begin reviewing applications on September 15, 2015, but will continue to accept applications until candidates are selected for interviews.
IODP-USSSP: Open Call for USAC Chair
The full Terms of Reference for USAC can be found at http://usoceandiscovery.org/terms-of-reference/. Scientists interested in this opportunity should send a cover letter and a two-page CV to email@example.com by July 15, 2015.
Rice University: Faculty Postition in Earth and Planetary Science
All required application materials submitted by September 15, 2015 are ensured full consideration.
IFREMER: Life at the extremes: microbial EcoGenomics of deep-sea extremophiles
The Lab for Microbiology of Extreme Environments (LM2E) in Brest (France) has an 18-month postdoctoral position available to carry out research in the field of deep-sea microbial ecology. The position will remain open until it is filled.
Montana State University: PhD Position, Astrobiology
The Priscu Research Group is seeking a motivated Ph.D. Student to work on a recently funded NASA Planetary Science and Technology Through Analog Research (PSTAR) grant.
Don’t forget to email me with any items you’d like to share in future newsletters! You are what makes our deep biosphere community!