On May 6th and 7th, 88 U.S. scientists with a strong interest in scientific ocean drilling (SOD) convened a workshop in Denver, CO, entitled “NEXT: Scientific Ocean Drilling Beyond 2023” to discuss United States priorities for SOD after the current IODP science plan ends. Joining the workshop were several representatives from the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), experts in drilling/coring, geoscientists from other organizations, and about 30 international partners. In total, approximately 140 people participated. Goals of the NEXT workshop included: What new scientific challenges should be addressed in the new SOD program? What should the framework or structure of the new science plan look like? And what is needed in a new U.S. riserless drilling vessel (from coring to shipboard analysis) to respond to the new challenges identified in this next science plan?