Fermentation plays a fundamental role in organic carbon degradation on a global scale. However, little is known about how environmental variables influence this process. In a step towards quantifying how temperature and composition influence fermentation, we have calculated the Gibbs energies of 47 fermentation reaction, ΔGr, from 0–150 °C for a broad range of compositions representing microbial habitats as variable as sediments, estuaries, soils, and crustal rocks. The organic compounds in these reactions include amino acids, nucleic acid bases, monosaccharides, carboxylates, methanogenic compounds and more. The amount of energy available varies considerably, from +54 kJ (mol C)−1 for palmitate fermentation, to −184 kJ (mol C)−1 for methylamine disproportionation. For some reactions, there is little difference in ΔGr between low and high energy systems (e.g., the monosaccharide reactions) while others span a much broader range (e.g., the nucleic acid bases). There is no clear-cut trend between exergonicity and temperature, and the values of standard state Gibbs energies of reactions, ΔG0r, for nearly half of the reactions lie outside the range of ΔGr values. To carry out some of these calculations, the thermodynamic properties for six organic compounds were estimated: dimethylamine, trimethylamine, resorcinol, phloroglucinol and cyclohexane carboxylate and its conjugate acid.