Biogeochemical cycling of sulfur is relatively understudied in terrestrial environments compared to marine environments. However, the comparative ease of access, observation, and sampling of terrestrial settings can expand our understanding of organisms and processes important in the modern sulfur cycle. Furthermore, these sites may allow for the discovery of useful process analogs for ancient sulfur-metabolizing microbial communities at times in Earth’s past when atmospheric O2 concentrations were lower and sulfide was more prevalent in Earth surface environments. We identified a new site at Santa Paula Creek (SPC) in Ventura County, CA—a remarkable freshwater, gravel-bedded mountain stream charged with a range of oxidized and reduced sulfur species and heavy hydrocarbons from the emergence of subsurface fluids within the underlying sulfur- and organic-rich Miocene-age Monterey Formation. SPC hosts a suite of morphologically distinct microbial biofacies that form in association with the naturally occurring hydrocarbon seeps and sulfur springs. We characterized the geology, stream geochemistry, and microbial facies and diversity of the Santa Paula Creek ecosystem. Using geochemical analyses and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that SPC supports a dynamic sulfur cycle that is largely driven by sulfide-oxidizing microbial taxa, with contributions from smaller populations of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-disproportionating taxa. This preliminary characterization of SPC revealed an intriguing site in which to study geological and geochemical controls on microbial community composition and to expand our understanding of sulfur cycling in terrestrial environments.