Work aboard E/V Nautilus and at the Inner Space Center in 2018 may assist in the search for extraterrestrial life, as exploration of iron-rich hydrothermal vent systems on Lō‘ihi Seamount (Figure 1) informs the design of future science-focused missions across our solar system. From August 21 to September 12, 2018, this research program was conducted by the SUBSEA (Systematic Underwater Biogeochemical Science and Exploration Analog) team, which is supported by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate and NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research. Our mission comprises three research elements: science, operations, and technology. Both natural and social sciences anchor the SUBSEA program, providing the basis for the operations and technology domains to design and implement their studies and supporting capabilities.