To assess the influence of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) tag choice on estimates of microbial diversity and/or community composition in seawater and marine sediment, we examined bacterial diversity and community composition from a site in the Central North Atlantic and a site in the Equatorial Pacific. For each site, we analyzed samples from four zones in the water column, a seafloor sediment sample, and two subseafloor sediment horizons (with stratigraphic ages of 1.5 and 5.5 million years old). We amplified both the V4 and V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and clustered the sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of 97% similarity to analyze for diversity and community composition. OTU richness is much higher with the V6 tag than with the V4 tag, and subsequently OTU-level community composition is quite different between the two tags. Vertical patterns of relative diversity are broadly the same for both tags, with maximum taxonomic richness in seafloor sediment and lowest richness in subseafloor sediment at both geographic locations. Genetic dissimilarity between sample locations is also broadly the same for both tags. Community composition is very similar for both tags at the class level, but very different at the level of 97% similar OTUs. Class-level diversity and community composition of water-column samples are very similar at each water depth between the Atlantic and Pacific. However, sediment communities differ greatly from the Atlantic site to the Pacific site. Finally, for relative patterns of diversity and class-level community composition, deep sequencing and shallow sequencing provide similar results.