In the ocean, viruses impact microbial mortality, regulate biogeochemical cycling, and alter the metabolic potential of microbial lineages. At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, abundant viruses infect a wide range of hosts among the archaea and bacteria that inhabit these dynamic habitats. However, little is known about viral diversity, host range, and biogeography across different vent ecosystems, which has important implications for how viruses manipulate microbial function and evolution. Here, we examined viral diversity, viral and host distribution, and virus-host interactions in microbial metagenomes generated from venting fluids from several vent sites within three different geochemically and geographically distinct hydrothermal systems: Piccard and Von Damm vent fields at the Mid-Cayman Rise in the Caribbean Sea, and at several vent sites within Axial Seamount in the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of viral sequences and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) spacers revealed highly diverse viral assemblages and evidence of active infection. Network analysis revealed that viral host range was relatively narrow, with very few viruses infecting multiple microbial lineages. Viruses were largely endemic to individual vent sites, indicating restricted dispersal, and in some cases, viral assemblages persisted over time. Thus, we show that hydrothermal vent fluids are home to novel, diverse viral assemblages that are highly localized to specific regions and taxa.