Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents are hosted by a range of different rock types, including basalt, peridotite, and felsic rocks. The associated hydrothermal fluids exhibit substantial chemical variability, which is largely attributable to compositional differences among the underlying host rocks. Numerical models were used to evaluate the energetics of seven inorganic redox reactions (potential catabolisms of chemolithoautotrophs) and numerous biomolecule synthesis reactions (anabolism) in a representative sampling of these systems, where chemical gradients are established by mixing hydrothermal fluid with seawater. The wide ranging fluid compositions dictate demonstrable differences in Gibbs energies (ΔGr) of these catabolic and anabolic reactions in three peridotite-hosted, six basalt-hosted, one troctolite-basalt hybrid, and two felsic rock-hosted systems. In peridotite-hosted systems at low to moderate temperatures (<∼45 °C) and high seawater:hydrothermal fluid (SW:HF) mixing ratios (>10), hydrogen oxidation yields the most catabolic energy, but the oxidation of methane, ferrous iron, and sulfide can also be moderately exergonic. At higher temperatures, and consequent SW:HF mixing ratios <10, anaerobic processes dominate the energy landscape; sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are more exergonic than any of the aerobic respiration reactions. By comparison, in the basalt-hosted and felsic rock-hosted systems, sulfide oxidation was the predominant catabolic energy source at all temperatures (and SW:HF ratios) considered. The energetics of catabolism at the troctolite-basalt hybrid system were intermediate to these extremes. Reaction energetics for anabolism in chemolithoautotrophs—represented here by the synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, saccharides, and amines—were generally most favorable at moderate temperatures (22–32 °C) and corresponding SW:HF mixing ratios (∼15). In peridotite-hosted and the troctolite-basalt hybrid systems, ΔGr for primary biomass synthesis yielded up to ∼900 J per g dry cell mass. The energetics of anabolism in basalt- and felsic rock-hosted systems were far less favorable. The results suggest that in peridotite-hosted (and troctolite-basalt hybrid) systems, compared with their basalt (and felsic rock) counterparts, microbial catabolic strategies—and consequently variations in microbial phylotypes—may be far more diverse and some biomass synthesis may yield energy rather than imposing a high energetic cost.