Download URLhttps://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/674781/data/download
Media Type text/tab-separated-values
Created January 13, 2017
Modified July 24, 2017
State Preliminary and in progress
Brief Description

Vent fluid chemistry from AT26-10 and AT26-23

Acquisition Description

– All fluids were collected using isobaric gas-tight fluid samplers (Seewald et al., 2002).
– Temperature was measured during sample collection using a type-J thermocouple attached to the inlet snorkel. Reported values are maximums observed during sample collection.

Analytical methods:
pH: Ag/AgCl combination reference electrode
Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br-, SO42- : ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detectionCH4: gas chromatography with flame ionization detection
H2: gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detection

Seewald, J.S., Doherty K.W., Hammar T.R. and Liberatore S.P. (2002). A new gas-tight isobaric sampler for hydrothermal fluids, Deep-Sea Research 49, 189-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00046-2

Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing:
– Added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
– Modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions
– Replaced blanks (missing data) and ‘nd’ to indicate ‘no data’
– Added cruise_id column


Instance Description

Used for sample collection

Isobaric Gas Tight (IGT) samplers, designed and built by scientists and engineers at WHOI, are titanium instruments designed to be used with deep submergence vehicles to sample corrosive hydrothermal vent fluids at high temperature and high pressure. The IGT prevents the sampled fluid from degassing as pressure decreases during the vehicle’s ascent to the surface.

type-J thermocouple attached to the inlet snorkel [Water Temperature Sensor]
Instance Description (type-J thermocouple attached to the inlet snorkel)

Used to measure in-situ temperature.

General term for an instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact (thermometer).
The Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason is operated by the Deep Submergence Laboratory (DSL) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). WHOI engineers and scientists designed and built the ROV Jason to give scientists access to the seafloor that didn't require them leaving the deck of the ship. Jason is a two-body ROV system. A 10-kilometer (6-mile) fiber-optic cable delivers electrical power and commands from the ship through Medea and down to Jason, which then returns data and live video imagery. Medea serves as a shock absorber, buffering Jason from the movements of the ship, while providing lighting and a bird’s eye view of the ROV during seafloor operations. During each dive (deployment of the ROV), Jason pilots and scientists work from a control room on the ship to monitor Jason’s instruments and video while maneuvering the vehicle and optionally performing a variety of sampling activities. Jason is equipped with sonar imagers, water samplers, video and still cameras, and lighting gear. Jason’s manipulator arms collect samples of rock, sediment, or marine life and place them in the vehicle’s basket or on "elevator" platforms that float heavier loads to the surface. More information is available from the operator site at URL.


cruise_id [cruise_id]
Cruise identifier
cruise designation; name
lat [latitude]
Latitude; north is positive

latitude, in decimal degrees, North is positive, negative denotes South; Reported in some datasets as degrees, minutes

lon [longitude]
Longitude; east is positive

longitude, in decimal degrees, East is positive, negative denotes West; Reported in some datsets as degrees, minutes

sample [sample]
Sample identifier

unique sample identification or number; any combination of alpha numeric characters; precise definition is file dependent

vent_site [site]
Vent site name
Sampling site identification.
temp [temperature]
water temperature at measurement depth
pH_25C [pH]
pH at 25 degrees C

pH: The measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution

Na_mmol_kg [Na]
Sodium concentration

Sodium (Na). Concentrations may be reported in parts per million, nanomoles per liter, or other units. Refer to dataset metadata for units.

K_mmol_kg [K]
Potassium concentration

K (potassium) concentration. May be reported in parts per million, nanomoles/Liter, or other units. Refer to dataset metadata for units.

Mg_mmol_kg [Mg]
Magnesium concentration

Mg (magnesium) concentration. May be reported in parts per million, nanomoles/Liter, or other units. Refer to dataset metadata for units.

Ca_mmol_kg [Ca]
Calcium concentration

Calcium (Ca). Concentrations may be reported in parts per million, nanomoles per liter, or other units. Refer to dataset metadata for units.

Cl_mmol_kg [chloride]
Chloride concentration

Chloride ion Cl-

SO4_mmol_kg [SO4]
Sulfate concentration

Concentration of sulfate (SO4) per unit volume

Br_mmol_kg [bromides]
Bromide concentration

Bromides including Br-

H2S_mmol_L [sulfide]
Hydrogen sulfide concentration

concentration of sulfide

H2_umol_L [unknown]
Hydrogen gas concentration
association with a community-wide standard parameter is not yet defined
CH4_umol_L [CH4]
Methane concentration


Dataset Maintainers

Jeffrey S. SeewaldWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
Stefan M. SievertWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
Nancy CopleyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
Nancy CopleyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)

BCO-DMO Project Info

Project Title An Integrated Study of Energy Metabolism, Carbon Fixation, and Colonization Mechanisms in Chemosynthetic Microbial Communities at Deep-Sea Vents
Acronym Microbial Communities at Deep-Sea Vents
Created June 11, 2012
Modified June 11, 2012
Project Description

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents, first discovered in 1977, are poster child ecosystems where microbial chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis is the primary source of organic carbon. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying microbiology and biogeochemistry of these fascinating ecosystems. Missing are the identification of specific microorganisms mediating critical reactions in various geothermal systems, metabolic pathways used by the microbes, rates of the catalyzed reactions, amounts of organic carbon being produced, and the larger role of these ecosystems in global biogeochemical cycles. To fill these gaps, the investigators will conduct a 3-year interdisciplinary, international hypothesis-driven research program to understand microbial processes and their quantitative importance at deep-sea vents. Specifically, the investigators will address the following objectives: 1. Determine key relationships between the taxonomic, genetic and functional diversity, as well as the mechanisms of energy and carbon transfer, in deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial communities. 2. Identify the predominant metabolic pathways and thus the main energy sources driving chemoautotrophic production in high and low temperature diffuse flow vents. 3. Determine energy conservation efficiency and rates of aerobic and anaerobic chemosynthetic primary productivity in high and low temperature diffuse flow vents. 4. Determine gene expression patterns in diffuse-flow vent microbial communities during attachment to substrates and the development of biofilms.

Integration: To address these objectives and to characterize the complexity of microbially-catalyzed processes at deep-sea vents at a qualitatively new level, we will pursue an integrated approach that couples an assessment of taxonomic diversity using cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches with methodologies that address genetic diversity, including a) metagenomics (genetic potential and diversity of community), b) single cell genomics (genetic potential and diversity of uncultured single cells), c) meta-transcriptomics and -proteomics (identification and function of active community members, realized potential of the community). To assess function and response to the environment, these approaches will be combined with 1) measurement of in situ rates of chemoautotrophic production, 2) geochemical characterization of microbial habitats, and 3) shipboard incubations under simulated in situ conditions (hypothesis testing under controlled physicochemical conditions). Network approaches and mathematical simulation will be used to reconstruct the metabolic network of the natural communities. A 3-day long project meeting towards the end of the second year will take place in Woods Hole. This Data Integration and Synthesis meeting will allow for progress reports and presentations from each PI, postdoc, and/or student, with the aim of synthesizing data generated to facilitate the preparation of manuscripts.

Intellectual Merit. Combining the community expression profile with diversity and metagenomic analyses as well as process and habitat characterization will be unique to hydrothermal vent microbiology. The approach will provide new insights into the functioning of deep-sea vent microbial communities and the constraints regulating the interactions between the microbes and their abiotic and biotic environment, ultimately enabling us to put these systems into a quantitative framework and thus a larger global context.

Broader Impacts. This is an interdisciplinary and collaborative effort between 4 US and 4 foreign institutions, creating unique opportunities for networking and fostering international collaborations. This will also benefit the involved students (2 graduate, several undergraduate) and 2 postdoctoral associates. This project will directly contribute to many educational and public outreach activities of the involved PIs, including the WHOI Dive & Discover program; single cell genomics workshops and Cafe Scientifique (Bigelow); REU (WHOI, Bigelow, CIW); COSEE and RIOS (Rutgers), and others. The proposed research fits with the focus of a number of multidisciplinary and international initiatives, in which PIs are active members (SCOR working group on Hydrothermal energy and the ocean carbon cycle, http://www.scorint. org/Working_Groups/wg135.htm; Deep Carbon Observatory at CIW, https://dco.gl.ciw.edu/; Global Biogeochemical Flux (GBF) component of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), http://www.whoi.edu/GBF-OOI/page.do?pid=41475)

Data Project Maintainers
Stefan M. SievertWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Lead Principal Investigator
Costantino VetrianiRutgers UniversityPrincipal Investigator
Dionysis I. FoustoukosCarnegie Institution for Science (CIS)Principal Investigator
Ramunas StepanauskasBigelow Laboratory for Ocean SciencesPrincipal Investigator
Craig TaylorWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Co-Principal Investigator
Jeffrey S. SeewaldMax Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (MPI)International Collaborator
Nadine Le BrisUniversity of GreifswaldInternational Collaborator
Niculina MusatShanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU)International Collaborator
Thomas SchwederLaboratoire d'Écogéochimie des Environnements Benthiques (LECOB)International Collaborator
Fengping WangWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Co-Principal Investigator