We proposed to study the microbial population in Meditteranean Outflow (IODP Expedition 339) sediments using sequencing and cultivation based approaches in order to examine what microbes are present, their activity and how they relate to the depositional environment created by the Meditteranean outflow waters. Sediments from this region proved extremely difficult to work with, likely due to a high clay content and presence of an extremely persistant inhibitory substance. We did manage to perform amplicon-based analysis of microbial communities at this site, and currently eukaryotic and archaeal communities have been analyzed. Data has also been obtained for bacterial communities. Metagenome samples have been prepped using a new amplification technology and sequencing on these samples is in progress. Additionally, cultivations have been performed, but no single isolates are in hand at this stage. This project will have outcomes relating to the C-DEBI themes of activity and extent. Work continues on this project funded by NSF Ocean Drilling to attempt further RNA analyses and continue the investigation of the deep biosphere at this margin location.